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Related Content. Allegro Qumran Photograph Collection. Editors: George J.

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Brooke and Helen K. Contact Sales. The Dead Sea Scrolls A college textbook and a study guide. Author: Weston Fields. Who discovered the Dead Sea Scrolls? When and where were they discovered? How were they saved? Who has them now? Will more be discovered? Have all the scrolls been published? Author: Weston Fields. Who discovered the Dead Sea Scrolls? When and where were they discovered? How were they saved? Who has them now? Will more be discovered? Have all the scrolls been published?

Are some still hidden away? Were there conspiracies to suppress some scrolls? How do the scrolls affect Christianity and Judaism? How similar are the biblical scrolls to our Bible today? These and other questions are answered in The Dead Sea Scrolls. A Short History , which offers information from exclusive interviews and unpublished archives. Acute Rhabdomyolysis Following Quail Consumption. Ioannis S. Papanikolaou, MD; Spyros P. Dourakis, MD;. Vassilios S. Papadimitropoulos, MD; Stefanos J.

Hadziyannis, PhD. The syndrome of acute rhabdomyolysis develops when damage to striated muscles occurs.

Physiognomics and Astrology in the Dead Sea Scrolls and Hellenistic-Early Roman Period Judaism

Muscle damage is usually attributed to toxic, ischemic, infectious, inflammatory or metabolic insults, as well as to direct muscle injury. Case Report. A year-old man, having experienced muscular pain in the lumbar region and extremities for 6 hours, was admitted to hospital. The patient reported no exercise or trauma and was afebrile both on and before admission.

He reported that 6 hours prior to the onset of symptoms, he had consumed quail, which had been shot in a rural area near Athens the previous autumn 5 months earlier and stored in a deep freezer. The patient, a resident of the Athens district, had had an pack per year history of tobacco smoking, but had abstained from smoking during the previous 8 months, and he denied any alcohol abuse.

His family history was unremarkable. Except for tenderness of the proximal muscles of the extremities, physical examination was unrevealing. Serum protein electrophoresis demonstrated a slight elevation of a2-globulin. All other results, including complete blood count, blood chemistry,.

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Address reprint requests and correspondence to Dr. Dourakis: 28 Achaias St. Accepted for publication 21 May Received 10 February Coagulation studies, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, serum haptoglobin, serum immunoglobulin levels, serologic tests for HIV, Toxoplasma gondii, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2, Epstein-Barr virus and trichinosis, were negative or normal.

Arterial blood gas values were normal. Chest x-ray and electrocardiograph were normal and abdominal ultrasonography was unremarkable. Based on a review of the patient's history, clinical findings and laboratory abnormalities, a diagnosis of acute rhabdomyolysis, caused by the consumption of quail, was made. The patient was treated symptomatically with normal saline intravenous administration 3 liters daily and urine alkalization.


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The latter was achieved with intravenous administration of sodium bicarbonate, as well as orally administered acetazolamide tablets and was documented with daily measurements of urine pH. These measures resulted in the disappearance of muscular pain and the normalization of urine color on the 2nd day of hospitalization; muscle enzymes gradually decreased to normal levels over a period of 21 days. Acute rhabdomyolysis is a syndrome resulting from damage to striated muscle, usually due to toxic, ischemic, infectious, inflammatory or metabolic insults, as well as to direct muscle injury.

Clinical manifestations include pain in muscles previously exerted during physical activity, muscular cramps and autonomic dysfunction occurring shortly 1. Our patient presented clinical and laboratory manifestations of acute rhabdomyolysis 6 hours following the ingestion of quail. The usual causes of rhabdomyolysis were excluded. It has been suggested that a toxic effect perhaps the previous consumption of hemlock seeds by the quail or a genetic sensitivity a hereditary enzyme deficiency may be the pathogenic basis of coturnism.

On the other hand, our patient's own and his family's history were unremarkable with regard to this syndrome; also, his origin was completely unrelated to the island of Lesvos the only place in Greece where coturnism has been known to occur. Our case exemplifies that coturnism is a rare cause of acute rhabdomyolysis, but with a good prognosis, provided there is timely recognition and treatment, thus obviating severe complications. The spectrum of rhabdomyolysis.

Myoglobinuria due to quail poisoning. Acute renal failure after a meal of quail letter. Toxic quail: a cultural-etiological investigation of coturnism. On the pathogenic mechanism of quail myopathy. The "plague" that struck down Israel after eating quail at Kibroth-hatta'avah was apparently different from the plague which struck down the Egyptians on Passover night. Below, Egyptian quail being raised in captivity in Egypt for commercial poultry sales to local restaurants:. Below, engraving of Sinai quail and chicks. Note: In contrast to Spring quail alighting in the evening while migrating north to Europe, they alight in the early morning on the north Sinai shore in the Autmun southbound from Europe to Africa after crossing the Mediterranean Sea.

Below, a 19th century newspaper engraving showing "Syrians" driving exhausted quail which have landed after crossing the Mediterranean Sea in the background, by shooing them into a small circle, then throwing either their cloaks or nets over them. Below, 19th century engraving showing Europeans hunting with shotguns Egyptian quail in cultivated fields near the pyramids with native Egyptian beaters to cause the birds to take flight so they can be shot down.

As the passages remarkably bear upon each other it will be advisable to quote them in the order in which they come. Only a few days after the Israelites had passed the Red Sea, they began to complain of the desert land into which Moses had led them, and openly said that they wished they had never left the land of their slavery, where they had plenty to eat.

According to His custom, pitying their narrow-minded and short-sighted folly, the natural result of the long servitude to which they had been subject, the Lord promised to send both bread and flesh-meat. The next passage records a similar circumstance, which occurred about a year afterwards, when the Israelites were tired of eating nothing but the manna, and again wished themselves back in Egypt.

The last passage in which Quails are mentioned occurs in the Psalms.

enter site In Ps. Some commentators have thought that it signified a species of locust, insects which travel in vast multitudes, and are always carried with the wind, thus agreeing with the statement that the Selavim were brought by the wind. Others have imagined that the Selavim were flying-fish, blown on shore as they rose from the sea after their fashion.

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From this passage it is evident that the Selavim which were sent together with the manna were birds of some kind— "fowls of wing," according to the literal sense of the Hebrew; so that the theory that they were insects or fish must he dismissed as untenable. Some, for example, take it to be the white stork, which is very plentiful in Palestine, and sometimes flies in such numbers that the sky is darkened as the winged host passes by.

They base this supposition on the stature of the bird, which is so tall that it stands about "two cubits high upon the face of the earth. In the first place, the words "as it were two cubits high upon the face of the earth" certainly do not refer to the stature of the individual birds. They are popularly taken to signify that the earth was covered with the bodies of the Selavim to the depth of three feet.

This, however, can hardly have been the fact, as in that case they would have utterly overwhelmed the whole camp, and crushed the tents by their weight. Moreover, there would have been no need of gathering them up, as they would have lain so thickly on the ground that the only trouble would have been to make a passage through them. It is not very easy to force a passage through snow a yard in depth, while to do so through the same depth of birds would have been almost impossible.

Neither could the Israelites have "spread them all abroad for themselves round about the camp. The sentence in question has a totally different signification, and refers to the height from the ground at which the birds fly. Taken in this sense, the whole passage falls into harmony, whereas in any other it involves a difficulty. The Quails fly in vast flocks, and, being weak-winged birds, never fly against the direction of the wind.

They will wait for days until the wind blows in the required direction, and will then take wing in countless multitudes; so that in an hour or two a spot on which not a Quail could be seen is covered with them. On account of their short wings, they never rise to any great height, even when crossing the sea, while on land they fly at a very low elevation, merely skimming over the ground, barely a yard or "two cubits high upon the face of the earth. In the first place, all the stork tribe are included among the list of unclean birds, and it is not likely that the Almighty would have neutralized His own edicts by providing food which the Israelites were forbidden to eat.