After a couple of camera clicks each the Russian embassy guards notice us and insist on no more photography. We oblige.
Pädagogische Psychologie – mit Schwerpunkt Lehren, Lernen und Entwicklung
The day after that we decided to meet with students informally in an outdoor location on the Paseo del Prada, a tree-lined boulevard that sits between Centro and old Havana. A gaggle of songbirds roosting in a nearby tree played a cacophonous soundtrack as late afternoon turned to dusk and then into nighttime.
By now the birds were asleep. This was undoubtedly the most robust discussion of the entire trip as the young Cuban artists were keen to know how their no-longer-socialist peers were treated in Russia and Belarus. The energy present spoke volumes. Day Six. But we wonder who then becomes the new parent once the mutiny ends? Hmmmm…so is capital becoming the new papa after Fidel? This is when I ask what would you say to Cuba ten years hence?
Still, I continue, what seems most missing today amongst artists is not just the absence of fathers or mothers posts, but the long-standing claim of futurity itself. This previous but now missing association is or was, I assert in full professorial mode now, the invisible link between avant-garde politics and avant-garde art. One of the artists comments that the early avant-garde did not always focus on the future, for example, the Dadaists were more intent on destroying the past, no? We know too that the Italian Futurists called for flooding museums, all the while claiming to envision the emergence of a technologically-focused new society.
While we may be more realistic than our counterparts from a century ago, that dark futureless is grinding us down fast. The artists seemed agreed that they are facing the same futurlessness, given the rampant privatization of their economy, which does create a niche for creative millennials, from which, however, only few will benefit.
Next evening, December 24 th , Tania invites us to a lovely Christmas meal with her mother and several relatives. Making due with what is available is key to our sense of the Cuban spirit. This extemporaneous aesthetic and knack for creative re-engineering and reuse — including their revolutionary tanks made of the parts of sugar mills by Castro comrades, placed outside of the Museum of Revolution — permeates the lives and art of people we met in Havana on this trip. Olga points out that while she was growing up in s USSR, people always had a fairly accessible black market.
Those things we could not obtain above ground were available, though for a price of course. But here in Cuba not only do people have limited surplus cash, but they have learned to invent an approximation of the things they want whatever is at hand. For example, because of very limited access to the Internet and general state control of art venues Cuban artists use a combination of Blue Tooth file sharing with content-sharing apps like Zapya to generate a sort of DIY intranet, not unlike the underground cassette tape and zine culture swapping that I remember from the s and early s in the US.
Day Seven, December 26 th , our final day in Cuba. As we waited for our return flight to NYC three men approached us asking for our passports. One man was the military official from several days before, only now dressed without his medals, military uniform and so forth, and I noticed he had his ID tag turned around to obscure his name. Much of the lecture this time was the same, though with more intensity and greater insistence that Tania is not an artist and she should not be associated with by us or any artists from outside Cuba.
I commented that I am for the revolution but it really needs a bigger heart and should embrace its critics, a gesture that would, in fact, make Cuba stronger in the eyes of many. The authorities assured us with a bit of glee that they already knew all about this and about us.
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The steady pressure is quite cruel and unnecessary for someone who to my mind has the ideals of the revolution as her goal. After all, as Marx commented years earlier in one of his rare proposals for the future:. INSTAR seems to be an attempt at making up a new type of public culture out of the remnants of a society undergoing tremendous changes.
In the museum launched an open call for projects. I was selected together with three other curators and researchers of contemporary art. Two weeks before the 1 st of May , when I was supposed to begin the residency I received an email informing me that my residency was canceled because of budget cuts. I am not an expert on budgets, I believe any changes usually affect the following year, not the current one. I was not offered any explanations, or compensation to produce the show I was invited to do. It is important to note that the other 3 residents were able to finalize their projects.
I consider this a discrimination against me. After numerous attempts to contact Mr. Since then numerous other people who had collaborations with the museum contacted me to share similar stories. This year, the museum launched a similar open call, without inviting me to participate. My name is Mihaela Varzari one of the 4 international curators and researchers in residence selected as a result of the open call launched in by MNAC under your directorship. I was looking forward to carrying out my project in Bucharest when 2 weeks prior to the starting date I was informed in a 2 line email that my residency was canceled because of the budget.
I even met you face to face, by sheer coincidence, at an art opening, but you told me you were too busy to discuss my situation. Only once someone from MNAC called to let me know that it was not a cancellation but a rescheduling. Nothing was followed up, despite a number of emails I sent in the hope of getting the ball rolling. My reaction to this cancellation and the treatment on behalf of yourself and your staff was one of immediate shock and disbelief. A publicly funded institution decides on a whim to discriminate against 1 of 4 residents the other 3 residents carried out their respective projects without feeling it at all necessary to offer more than a 2 line explanation and what transpired to be a false promise.
In preparation for my time in Bucharest, I had organized to sublet my room. As a result of the cancellation, I had nowhere to live for a month and was forced to stay at friends and pay for a room with Airbnb. Moser, ADB Schoell The house of Saxe-Meiningen descends from Bernhard, the third son of Ernst of Saxony, duke of Gotha , whose seven children divided his inheritance in In his testament of , he ordered that his lands never be divided, but that they should be owned jointly by all sons until such time as each is able to acquire a principality commensurate with his rank.
He explains at length his opposition to primogeniture, claiming that it was not only contrary to the house laws, testaments, and customs of the house of Saxony, but also that it only brought bad luck to those who introduced it in their families. At his death, his three sons accordingly succeeded him: Ernst Ludwig, Friedrich Wilhelm and Anton Ulrich , under the rule of the eldest one. Ernst Ludwig disobeyed his father's will and, in his own will of which received imperial confirmation in instituted primogeniture in his own line and required "alter Grafenstand" for marriages see the text below ; but that line became extinct with his son Karl Friedrich in , at which point the two other brothers ruled jointly.
When Friedrich Wilhelm died without issue in , Anton Ulrich was left as sole ruler of the Meiningen lands. Anton Ulrich 's marriage was a milestone in the history of German house laws. He decided to have his wife and children titled princes by the emperor in order to make them of equal rank and thus apt to succeed him. At that time the dukes of Saxony and Anhalt made a convention against morganatic marriages, and Anton Ulrich was informed by his brother Ernst Ludwig that it would apply to his marriage 1 Aug Anton Ulrich wrote himself a protest, declaring the convention disgraceful, un-christian, erroneous, without force, incoherent, and unlawful; and he went to Vienna in to ask the emperor not to confirm the convention.
In spite of the furious protests of his eldest brother, as well as those of all Saxon agnates and even other German princes, on 21 Feb Emperor Charles VI raised her to the rank of Imperial countess with the style of Hochgeboren , and declared that their children were princes and princesses, dukes and duchesses of Saxony and fully entitled to the same claims and rights as those of any equal marriage:. After the death of Charles VI in the matter was brought up during the election of the new emperor in Some princes wanted to define Vierahnenadel as equality requirements for members of the upper nobility Abt , n2 , but clearly there was not enough agreement on such a high standard.
Ultimately a clause was inserted in the Electoral Capitulation of the next emperor, Charles VII, according to which the emperor promised never to raise to the status of equal children born of a "notoriously unequal" marriage.
Unequal and Morganatic Marriages in German Law
As for Anton Ulrich's marriage, a ruling of the Reichshofrat of 25 Sep. Anton Ulrich appealed to the Reichstag which unanimously upheld the ruling on 24 Jul , confirmed by imperial court decree of 4 Sep. Anton Ulrich did not quite give in. Widowed, he remarried, equally this time to Charlotte Amalie of Hesse-Philippsthal, by whom he had four sons andf five daughters. Yet, shortly before his death in , he wrote a will 27 Jan declaring his two eldest sons to be dukes of Saxony, leaving his wife as regent until such time as the emperor resolved the matter in their favor. His widow dutifully appealed and the Reichshofrat confirmed on 25 Feb that the two sons were ineligible to succeed.
In any event all his children by this first marriage died without issue. As early as an agreement between the cousins Eberhard and Eberhard stipulated that if the younger should be widowed and remarried, he should do so with "einer die sein Gnos ist", but that if he should marry with "einer mindern und niedern Person" any children from that marriage would have no claim to his lands ot the lordship of Wurttemberg, but if he should marry with the consent of the elder, the wife would receive Gulden as his first wife had.
Sich ohne der Andern This is probably the most complex case, involving a morganatic marriage, a divorce, bastards by an adultery later legitimated, a second morganatic marriage with the sister of the adulteress, adoption of the adulteress's children, and intermarriage between children and stepchildren. They became separated in The duke and Henriette had 5 illegitimate children, of which two daughters: Eberhardine b.
Henriette died on 9 Nov In , the duke adopted Henriette's children by her first marriage and gave them the county of Coligny in Bresse which he held from his mother Anne de Coligny.
To make things even worse, the duke's children by his first marriage each married one of Henriette's children by her first marriage in As if the duke hadn't broken enough rules, he then sought to have all of his children declared legitimate and apt to succeed him. He had signed in in Wildbade a document, admitting to his kinsman Eberhard Ludwig that he had never married equally and that none of his children had any succession rights. To undo this, he decided to renew the French naturalization granted to his father in , which he obtained in In he asked the emperor for the title of princess for his second wife and named his son by his first marriage Georg Leopold hereditary prince, and the latter's wife his mistress's daughter by her first marriage and his own adoptive daughter as well hereditary princess.
This unilateral move did not please the Emperor, who declared these actions null and void 8 Nov as "an open attack on the power and privileges of the emperor and the Holy Roman Empire".